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Three Layer Model

The three layers are drawn out into a temporal span to indicate the relationship between the names A, B and C. The information link from a specific publication is shown by a broken line. Existence is shown by solid horizontal lines. Instances are shown by a bundle of horizontal lines. It is important to note that there are no links between the taxon, name and instance except through publications. Taxon A was first described. Taxon B was a later description made in ignorance of taxon A, so is erroneous (a clerical error). Taxon C was described later still with new instances and proposed removing some of the instances from A, so re-defining the taxon concept of A. This represents multiple taxonomic opinion. A later reviser took the view that the division of A and C was unjustified and declared C to be a junior synonym of A, but with an emended definition of the taxon concept A. After this only a single taxon thread (A) continues, whereas in the name layer, the names B and C continue to exist as junior synonyms of A. Note that the figure shows only one opinion. Other opinions, with different arrangement of taxon lines, are also possible.

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